[Haskell-cafe] Newclasses

Wvv vitea3v
Wed Oct 2 21:12:34 UTC 2013

"Newclasses" are not a new vision of classes!
Not at all!
Newclasses could elegant solve several instance problems!

1) we want to have "partly applied instances", like Parent2Child: Parent a
=> Child a
	instance Applicative m => Monad m where
		return = pure
		-- we won't define here (>>=)

2) we want to have superclass' instances, like Child2Parent: Child a =>
Parent a
	instance Monad m => Applicative m where
		pure  = return
		(<*>) = ap
3) we want to have default instances outside of class and as many as
possible, not the only one.
	class Foo a where
		foo :: ...
		default foo :: ...
		foo = ...

4) we want to have multi-class instances to separate (or unite) classes
	type Stringy a = (Show a, Read a)
	instance Stringy SomeData where
		read = ...
		show = ...

(4)th problem we could solve separately, but maybe it isn't easy enough to
do such de-sugaring, and it could much easier to add them in newclasses.
(3)rd problem is solved partly, but not in universal way, non-flexible and a
bit ugly.
(2)nd problem is solved, but it is mostly impossible to use them and it is
not recommend to use it for overlapping and incoherent issues.
(1)st problem is unsolved at all (partly, it is possible to make depended
classes, but checker don't check if we implement parent classes).

This is a compose proposal. Newclasses solve these problems at once!
As newtype is a data looking like a type, same newclass is looking like a
class, but is mostly an instance!
Mostly, but not full.

To best understanding what "newclasses" is, let's look at (1)st problem:

    -- we wish to write 
	-- instance Applicative m => Monad m where
	--	return = pure

	-- we write "newclass" instead of "instance"
	-- add "=>" and giving a name to newclass like a class
	-- this is not instance, so newclass can't overlap with any instance
	newclass (Applicative m) => Monad m => ApMonad m where
		return = pure
	data D a ....
	instance Applicative D where 
		pure  = ...
		(<*>) = ...
	-- creating instances from newclass is intuitive
	-- we implement here Monad class, not "ApMonad"; ApMonad is a just newclass
	instance ApMonad D where 
		-- we already have 'return = pure', so we define only (>>=)
		(>>=) = ...
What do we see here?
Newclass looks like class, but it's mostly an instance!



  newclass constraint => Parent a => NewClassName a where ...

As class, newclass has a name, which is unique and can't conflict with any
other newclass or class names.
As class, methods of newclass could be empty or implemented.
As class, methods of newclass are not use in function inference.
As class we can make an instance of newclasses and overwrite any of his
But, instance of newclass IS an instance of the parent (!)class! So,
newclasses is like a de-sugaring.

As instance, newclass contains only parents methods!
On contrary to instancess, we don't use newclasse directly, it only help us
to create instances.

If we allow for newclass to be as Parent not only classes, but newclasses,
then newclass can't be recursive: neither of his (Grand)Parent could be he
by himself.
If we allow for newclass muliple Parents, we solve (4)th problem too.

We have:

	class Functor f where
		fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
	class Applicative f where -- without "Functor f =>", this is a misfeature
		pure  :: a -> f a
		(<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
	class Monad m where
		return :: a -> m a
		(>>=)  :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b
	class Ord' a where -- without "Eq a =>", this is a misfeature
		compare a b    -- not as in Prelude
			| a < b     = LT
			| a > b     = GT
			| otherwise = EQ
(1)st, Parent2Child:
Common pattern to write newclass like:

	newclass Parent a => Child a => ParChild a where ...


	newclass (Applicative m) => Monad m => ApMonad m where
		return = pure
	data C1 a ...
	instance Applicative C1 where
		pure  = ...
		(<*>) = ...
	instance ApMonad C1 where
		-- return is already defined
		(>>=) = ...

	newclass (Ord' a) => Eq a => OEq a where
		a == b = case compare a b of
					EQ -> True
					_  -> False

	data C2 ...
	instance Ord' C2 where
		(>) = ...
		(<) = ...
	instance OEq C2 -- empty instance for Eq
(2)nd, Child2Parrent:
Common pattern to write newclass like:

	newclass Child a => Parent a => ChParent a where ...


	newclass (Eq a) => Ord' a => Ord a where
		compare a b 
			| a == b     = EQ
			| a >= b     = GT
			| otherwise  = LT		

	data C3 ...
	instance Eq C3 where
		(==) = ...
	instance Ord C3 where -- Ord with much effective `compare`, than Ord'
		(>) = ...
		(<) = ...
	newclass Monad m => Applicative m => MApplicative m where
		pure  = return
		(<*>) = ap

	data C4 a ...
	instance Monad C4 where
		return = ...
		(>>=)  = ...
	instance MApplicative C4 -- empty, everything is already defined !

	newclass Monad m => Functor m => MFunctor m where
		fmap = liftM

	newclass Applicative f => Functor f => ApFunctor f where		
		fmap f x = pure f <*> x		
	data C5 a ...
	instance Applicative C5 where
		pure  = ...
		(<*>) = ...		
	instance ApMonad C5 where
		(>>=) = ...  -- without return
	instance MFunctor C5
	--(!) or
	instance ApFunctor C5
	--(!!!) but not both
(3)rd, default instances:
Common pattern to write newclass like:

	newclass GenericConstraint a => Class a => GNewclass a where ...


	class ToJSON a where
		toJSON   :: a -> Value
	newclass (Generic a, GToJSON (Rep a)) => ToJSON a => GenToJSON a where
		toJSON = genericToJSON defaultOptions
	newclass (Data a) => ToJSON a => DataToJSON a where
		toJSON = dataToJSON defaultOptions	
	data C6 ... deriving (Generic, Data)
	-- don't forget to create an empty instance!
	instance GenToJSON C6
	--(!) or
	instance DataToJSON C6
	--(!!!) but not both	
(4)th, multi-class instances
Common pattern to write newclass:

	newclass (Class1 a, Class2 a, Class3 a)=> Newclass a where ...


	newclass (Read a, Show a) => Stringy a  -- without where

	data C7 ...
	instance Stringy C7 where
		read = ...
		show = ...
	class MinBounded a where
		minBound :: a
	class MaxBounded a where
		maxBound :: a
	newclass (MinBounded a, MaxBounded a) => Bounded a
	class Additive a where
		(+) :: a -> a -> a
	class Additive a => AdditiveZero a where
		zero :: a

	class Mulipicative a where
		(*) :: a -> a -> a
	class Mulipicative a => MulipicativeOne a where
		one :: a
	newclass (Additive a, Mulipicative a, Substravive a, FromInteger a) => Num
a -- without where
	newclass (AdditiveZero a, MulipicativeOne a, Substravive a, FromInteger a)
=> NumFull a 

- "newclass" is a very powerful tool
- it is universal solution without extra assumptions!
- solve 4 big problems with instances
- it is a Huge step
- it is a step forward, not aside
- it is developing function's muscles to Haskell

- new reserved word "newclass"
- with Child2Parrent problem it is needed to write empty instances
- main difficulty - it is not easy to implement this extension!

Newclasses could also help to reorganize some Prelude classes, like Ord,
Applicative, Functor, Bound, Num, ...

What do you think of this proposal?
You opinion is important and significant!
Let's help to develop Haskell together!

Do you like "newclasses"? Do you want to use them?
Do you think newclasses are appropriate solution for written problems?
Could newclasses help to resolve some other problems?
Are they useless?

Do you see huge difficulties of implementation?
Do you have more elegant ideas, which correspondent with newclasses?

If it is not clear enough, I write more clearly.

Any feedback is welcome!

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