[Haskell-cafe] Re: Translation of Haskell type classes
Christian Maeder
Christian.Maeder at dfki.de
Thu Feb 4 13:35:43 EST 2010
try:
type DictMyEq a = a -> a -> Bool
-- From the definition of type class MyOrd
type DictOrd a = (DictMyEq a, a -> a -> Bool)
data Nat = Z | S Nat
-- From the instance MyEq Nat
eqNat :: Nat -> Nat -> Bool
eqNat Z Z = True
eqNat Z (S x) = False
eqNat (S x) Z = False
eqNat (S x) (S y) = eqNat x y
-- From the instance MyOrd Nat
lessNat :: Nat -> Nat -> Bool
lessNat Z Z = False
lessNat Z (S x) = True
lessNat (S x ) Z = False
lessNat (S x) (S y) = lessNat x y
search :: DictOrd a -> a -> [a] -> Bool
search _ _ [] = False
search d@(eq, less) x (y : ys) =
eq x y || less y x && search d x ys
with: search (eqNat, lessNat) (S Z) (replicate 1000000 Z)
This performs as fast as the class version for me (ghci-6.10.4)
Compiling with optimization should show no difference between all versions.
hugs-Sept2006 shows
(21000051 reductions, 27998068 cells, 28 garbage collections)
versus
(19000049 reductions, 25998064 cells, 26 garbage collections)
in favor of the version without classes for me.
Selecting the dictionary components seems to be a problem when
interpreting the code using ghci.
Cheers Christian
Enrique Martín schrieb:
> Hello all,
>
> few days ago I made some experiments with Haskell type classes. I wrote
> a small Haskell program for searching in sorted lists, defining my own
> type classes for equality (MyEq) and order (MyOrd) so that they only
> have one member function:
>
> --------------------------------------------------------
> class MyEq a where
> eq :: a -> a -> Bool
> class MyEq a => MyOrd a where
> less :: a -> a -> Bool
> data Nat = Z | S Nat
>
> instance MyEq Nat where
> eq Z Z = True
> eq Z (S x) = False
> eq (S x) Z = False
> eq (S x) (S y) = eq x y
> instance MyOrd Nat where
> less Z Z = False
> less Z (S x) = True
> less (S x ) Z = False
> less (S x) (S y) = less x y
>
> search :: MyOrd a => a -> [a] -> Bool
> search x [] = False
> search x (y:ys) = (eq x y) || (less y x && search x ys)
> --------------------------------------------------------
>
> I also wrote the translation of this program using the classical
> approach of dictionaries that appears in "How to make ad-hoc
> polymorphism less ad hoc", Wadler & Blott 1989 or "Type Classes in
> Haskell", Cordelia V. Hall et. al. 1996.
>
> --------------------------------------------------------
> -- From the definition of type class MyEq
> data DictMyEq a = DictMyEq (a -> a -> Bool)
>
> eq :: DictMyEq a -> (a -> a -> Bool)
> eq (DictMyEq x) = x
>
> -- From the definition of type class MyOrd
> data DictMyOrd a = DictMyOrd (DictMyEq a) (a -> a -> Bool)
>
> getMyEqFromMyOrd :: DictMyOrd a -> DictMyEq a
> getMyEqFromMyOrd (DictMyOrd x y) = x
>
> less :: DictMyOrd a -> (a -> a -> Bool)
> less (DictMyOrd x y) = y
>
> data Nat = Z | S Nat
>
>
> -- From the instance MyEq Nat
> eqNat :: Nat -> Nat -> Bool
> eqNat Z Z = True
> eqNat Z (S x) = False
> eqNat (S x) Z = False
> eqNat (S x) (S y) = eqNat x y
> dictMyEqNat :: DictMyEq Nat
> dictMyEqNat = DictMyEq eqNat
>
>
> -- From the instance MyOrd Nat
> lessNat :: Nat -> Nat -> Bool
> lessNat Z Z = False
> lessNat Z (S x) = True
> lessNat (S x ) Z = False
> lessNat (S x) (S y) = lessNat x y
>
> dictMyOrdNat :: DictMyOrd Nat
> dictMyOrdNat = DictMyOrd dictMyEqNat lessNat
>
>
> search :: DictMyOrd a -> a -> [a] -> Bool
> search _ x [] = False
> search dict x (y:ys) = (eq (getMyEqFromMyOrd dict) x y) || (less dict y
> x && search dict x ys)
> --------------------------------------------------------
>
>
> I made some tests in GHC 6.8.2 and I noticed that the original program
> with type classes runs pretty faster than the translated program. For
> example, reducing the expression
> search (S Z) (replicate 1000000 Z)
> needs 2.07 seconds in the original program. However the translated
> expression
> search dictMyOrdNat (S Z) (replicate 1000000 Z)
> needs 3.10 seconds in the translated program, which is one more second.
>
> Surprised with the results, I repeated the test this time in Hugs Sept.
> 2006. I noticed that the difference was not so big:
> search (S Z) (replicate 100000 Z) --> (2100051 reductions, 2798068
> cells, 2 garbage collections)
> search dictMyOrdNat (S Z) (replicate 100000 Z) --> (2200051
> reductions, 2898067 cells, 3 garbage collections)
>
> My first idea was that type classes were implemented using the approach
> of dictionaries, but the test showed me that it is not true (mainly in
> GHC). Then I discovered the paper "Implementing Haskell overloading",
> Augustsson 1993, when he describes some ways to improve the speed of
> Haskell overloading.
>
> So my questions are:
> 1) is the enhancement obtained only using the optimizations of
> Augustsson's paper?
> 2) Could anyone tell me where I can find the translation of type
> classes that GHC and Hugs use?
>
> Thank you very much,
>
> Enrique M.
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