Proposal: fix Enum Double instance
Edward Kmett
ekmett at gmail.com
Mon Jul 8 04:46:46 CEST 2013
There is a pretty big potential problem with this.
Not every type that is enumerable admits a torsor where you can talk about
forward differences.
What would the enumFromStepTo function mean for, say, Ordering or for most
derived Enum instances?
-Edward
On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 12:17 PM, Edward A Kmett <ekmett at gmail.com> wrote:
> +1 from me.
>
> The massive cancellation destroying significant figures of significand in
> enumFromThenTo has always driven me nuts.
>
> Sent from my iPhone
>
> On Jul 5, 2013, at 8:50 AM, Twan van Laarhoven <twanvl at gmail.com> wrote:
>
> > Hello All,
> >
> >
> > I would like to make a counterproposal in the Enum Double debate:
> Instead of deprecating or removing the instances, how about just fixing
> them?
> >
> > A perfect instance for Enum Double is not possible, because arithmetic
> is inexact. But you can actually get awfully close. I.e. instead of
> allowing the final value to be at most step/2 past the end, we can allow it
> to be at most about 2e-16*step past the end. In many practical applications
> this is close enough to not be a problem.
> >
> >
> >
> > Now for some more detail on the design:
> >
> > * First of all, Haskell's enumFromThenTo is stupid, because calculating
> step=then-from destroys numerical accuracy. So I will focus on implementing
> a function enumFromStepTo. You can still implement enumFromThenTo on top of
> it. But it might also make sense to expose enumFromStepTo.
> >
> > * It is possible to write an exact instance for Rational. It is IMO
> unacceptable that Haskell currently does not use this correct instance. I
> will use this Rational instance as a baseline for comparison.
> >
> > instance EnumFromStepTo Rational where
> > enumFromStepTo f s t
> > | s >= 0 && f <= t = f : enumFromStepTo (f + s) s t
> > | s < 0 && f >= t = f : enumFromStepTo (f + s) s t
> > | otherwise = []
> >
> > * Writing a loop naively, by recursing with from' = from+step will
> result in accumulating the error of the addition. On the other hand,
> Doubles can represent integer numbers exactly up to 2^53, so it is better
> to use values from+i*step.
> >
> > * Assume for simplicity that step>0. The stopping condition will then be
> of the form from+i*step-to > 0. When this quantity is 0 then the final
> value should be included, otherwise it shouldn't be.
> >
> > * Now for an error analysis. Assume that we start with
> > f,s,t :: Rational
> > and call
> > let f' = fromRational f
> > let s' = fromRational s
> > let t' = fromRational t
> > enumFromThenTo f' s' t'
> >
> > The fromRational function rounds a rational number to the nearest
> representable Double. The relative error in f' is therefore bounded by abs
> (f-f') ≤ ε * abs f, where ε is the half the maximum distance between two
> adjacent doubles, which is about 1.11e-16. similarly for s' and t'. the
> result of an addition or multiplication operation will also be rounded to
> the nearest representable Double.
> >
> > So, the total error in our stopping condition is bounded by
> > err(f+i*s-t)
> > ≤ ε * abs f -- representing f
> > + ε * i * abs s -- representing s, amplified by i
> > + ε * i * abs s -- error in calculating (*), i * s
> > + ε * abs (f + i*s) -- error in calculating (+), f + (i*s)
> > + ε * abs t -- representing t
> > + ε * abs (f + i*s - t) -- error in calculating (-)
> >
> > Note that the last term of the bound is the thing we are bounding. So we
> can handle that by picking a slightly larger epsilon, eps = ε/(1-ε).
> >
> > This leads to the following implementation of enumFromStepTo:
> >
> > enumFromStepToEps eps !f !s !t = go 0
> > where
> > go i
> > | s >= 0 && x <= t = x : go (i+1)
> > | s < 0 && x >= t = x : go (i+1)
> > | abs (x - t) < eps * bound = [x]
> > | otherwise = []
> > where
> > x = f + i * s
> > bound = abs f + 2 * abs (i * s) + abs t + abs x
> >
> > with eps = 1.12e-16 :: Double
> > or eps = 5.97e-8 :: Float
> >
> > I have done extensive experiments with this implementation and many
> variants, and I believe it will work in all cases.
> >
> > Now for enumFromTo, i.e. step=1 we could make a special case, since we
> know that step is exactly equal to 1, so there is no representation error.
> We could get rid of the multiplication, and replace i*s by 0 in the error
> calculation.
> >
> > Another issue that remains is enumFromThenTo. If we take
> > step = then - from
> > then the relative error in step is bounded by
> > |step' - step| ≤ ε * (|then| + |from| + |then - from|).
> > This error gets multiplied by i, so it can unfortunately become quite
> large.
> >
> > I think it would be best if we use the more general
> >
> > enumFromStepToEps' !eps !f !s !sErr !t = go 0
> > where
> > go i
> > | s >= 0 && x <= t = x : go (i+1)
> > | s < 0 && x >= t = x : go (i+1)
> > | abs (x - t) < eps * bound = [x]
> > | otherwise = []
> > where
> > x = f + i * s
> > bound = abs f + abs (i * s) + abs (i * sErr) + abs t + abs x
> >
> > enumFromStepTo f s t = enumFromStepToEps' eps f s s t
> > enumFromTo f t = enumFromStepToEps' eps f 1 0 t
> > enumFromThenTo f h t = enumFromStepToEps' eps f (h - f)
> > (abs h + abs f + abs (h - f)) t
> >
> >
> > I have also looked at what other language implementations do. So far I
> have found that:
> > * Octave uses a similar method, with the bound
> > 3 * double_epsilon * max (abs x) (abs t),
> > which is less tight than my bound.
> > see
> http://hg.savannah.gnu.org/hgweb/octave/file/787de2f144d9/liboctave/array/Range.cc#l525
> >
> > * numpy just uses an array with length ceil((to-from)/step)
> > see
> https://github.com/numpy/numpy/blob/master/numpy/core/src/multiarray/ctors.c#L2742
> > It therefore suffers from numerical inaccuracies:
> > $ python
> > >>> from numpy import arange
> > >>> notone = 9/7. - 1/7. - 1/7.
> > >>> notone
> > 1.0000000000000002
> > >>> len(arange(1,1))
> > 0
> > >>> len(arange(1,notone))
> > 1
> >
> >
> > In summary:
> > * change Enum Rational to the always correct implementation
> > * change Enum Double and Enum Float to the almost-always correct
> implementation propose above.
> > * (optional) expose the enumFromStepTo function.
> >
> >
> >
> > Twan
> >
> > _______________________________________________
> > Libraries mailing list
> > Libraries at haskell.org
> > http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/libraries
>
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