Miguel A. Santos miguel.a.santos.l at gmail.com
Sun May 8 16:04:17 UTC 2016

```I am trying to understand how can I use Numeric.AD (automatic

I defined a simple matrix type and a scalar function taking an array and
two matrices as arguments. I want to use AD to get the gradient of the
scoring function with respect to both matrices, but I'm running into
compilation problems. Here is the code:

-------------------------------

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveTraversable, DeriveFunctor, DeriveFoldable
#-}import Numeric.AD.Mode.Reverse as Rimport Data.Traversable as
Timport Data.Foldable as F
--- Non-linear function on "vectors"
logistic x = 1.0 / (1.0 + exp(-x) )
phi v = map logistic v
phi' (x:xs) = x : (phi xs)
--- dot product
dot u v = foldr (+) 0 \$ zipWith (*) u v
--- simple matrix typedata Matrix a = M [[a]] deriving
(Eq,Show,Functor,F.Foldable,T.Traversable)
--- action of a matrix on a vector
mv _ [] = []
mv (M []) _ = []
mv ( M m ) v = ( dot (head m)  v ) :  (mv (M (tail m)) v )
--- two matrices
mbW1 = M \$ [[1,0,0],[-1,5,1],[1,2,-3]]
mbW2 = M \$ [[0,0,0],[1,3,-1],[-2,4,6]]
--- two different scoring functions
sc1 v m = foldr (+) 0 \$ (phi' . (mv m) )  v

sc2 :: Floating a => [a] -> [Matrix a] -> a
sc2 v [m1, m2] = foldr (+) 0 \$ (phi' . (mv m2) . phi' . (mv m1) ) v

strToInt = read :: String -> Double
strLToIntL = map strToInt--- testing
main = do
putStrLn \$ "mbW1:" ++ (show mbW1)
putStrLn \$ "mbW2:" ++ (show mbW2)
let xin= strLToIntL \$ lines rawInput
putStrLn "sc xin mbW1"
print \$ sc1 xin mbW1  --- ok. =
print \$ grad ( sc1 xin) mbW1   -- yields an error: expects xin
[Reverse s Double] instead of [Double]
print \$ grad ( sc1 [3,5,7]) mbW1   --- ok. =
putStrLn "sc2 xin [mbW1,mbW2]"
print \$ sc2 xin [mbW1, mbW2]
print \$ grad ( sc2 [3,5,7]) [mbW1, mbW2]  --- Error: see text

--------------------------------

The last line (grad on sc2) gives the following error:

---------------------------------

Couldn't match type ‘Reverse s (Matrix Double)’
with ‘Matrix (Reverse s (Matrix Double))’
Expected type: [Reverse s (Matrix Double)]
-> Reverse s (Matrix Double)
Actual type: [Matrix (Reverse s (Matrix Double))]
-> Reverse s (Matrix Double)
In the first argument of ‘grad’, namely ‘(sc2 [3, 5, 7])’
In the second argument of ‘(\$)’, namely
‘grad (sc2 [3, 5, 7]) [mbW1, mbW2]’

---------------------------------

I don't understand where the "Matrix of Matrix" in the actual type seen
comes from. I'm feeding the grad with a curried version of sc2, making it a
function on a list of Matrix.

Commenting out the two offending lines runs without problem, i.e., the
first gradient works and is correctly calculated (I'm feeding [1,2,3] as
input to the program):

-------------------

mbW1:M [[1.0,0.0,0.0],[-1.0,5.0,1.0],[1.0,2.0,-3.0]]
mbW2:M [[0.0,0.0,0.0],[1.0,3.0,-1.0],[-2.0,4.0,6.0]]
sc1 xin mbW11232.0179800657874893
M [[3.0,5.0,7.0],[7.630996942126885e-13,1.2718328236878141e-12,1.7805659531629398e-12],[1.0057130122694228e-3,1.6761883537823711e-3,2.3466636952953197e-3]]
sc2 xin [mbW1,mbW2]1.8733609463863194
-------------------

Both errors are an issue. I want to take the gradient of any such sc2
scoring function, depending on an array of matrices, evaluated at any
given "point" xin. Clearly, I'm not yet understanding the AD library
well enough. Any help would be appreciated.

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