[Haskell-cafe] Closed classes
David Feuer
david.feuer at gmail.com
Thu Feb 18 04:06:41 UTC 2016
For the sake of completeness, I'd love to be able to write this, instead, as
{-# LANGUAGE ClosedClasses #-}
-- The "closed" keyword indicates that
-- only instances in this module will be
-- permitted.
closed class Closed a b where
fun :: a -> b -> Int
-- Necessarily in the same module, and in
-- this order. Ideally, other definitions would
-- be allowed to appear between them.
-- The "closed" keyword is a reminder of
-- order-dependence.
closed instance Closed Int y where fun x _ = x
closed instance Closed x Int where fun _ y = y
closed instance Closed x y where fun _ _ = 0
On Wed, Feb 17, 2016 at 10:44 PM, David Feuer <david.feuer at gmail.com> wrote:
> Yes, closed type families *can* be used to achieve the same result even
> now, but it tends to be fairly verbose. There are a number of minor
> variations in how it can be done, but here's one example:
>
> {-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies, DataKinds, MultiParamTypeClasses,
> FlexibleInstances, FlexibleInstances, ScopedTypeVariables,
> UndecidableInstances #-}
> import Data.Proxy
>
> class Closed a b where
> fun :: a -> b -> Int
>
> -- Names for the instances
> data InstanceChoice = ChooseFirst | ChooseSecond | IgnoreBoth
>
> -- Determine which instance should be used
> type family Choose a b where
> Choose Int y = 'ChooseFirst
> Choose x Int = 'ChooseSecond
> Choose x y = 'IgnoreBoth
>
> -- Auxiliary class with instance-choice parameter
> class Closed' (choice :: InstanceChoice) a b where
> fun' :: proxy choice -> a -> b -> Int
>
> -- The actual instances
> instance Closed' 'ChooseFirst Int y where fun' _ x _ = x
> instance Closed' 'ChooseSecond x Int where fun' _ _ y = y
> instance Closed' 'IgnoreBoth x y where fun' _ _ _ = 0
>
> -- Note that ScopedTypeVariables is necessary to make this typecheck.
> instance (choice ~ Choose a b, Closed' choice a b) => Closed a b where
> fun = fun' (Proxy :: Proxy choice)
>
> Then
>
> > fun (3 :: Int) 'a'
> 3
> > fun 'a' (4 :: Int)
> 4
> > fun 'a' 'b'
> 0
>
>
>
> On Wed, Feb 17, 2016 at 7:21 PM, Imants Cekusins <imantc at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>> This would be very useful indeed.
>>
>> Can closed type families not be used to achieve the same result even now,
>> already?
>>
>> I tried to use type families recently to explicitly pick an (otherwise
>> overlapping) instance in specified order but could not figure out, how.
>>
>> If someone could give a complete simple example of primary intended use
>> of closed type families with class instances, this would help a lot.
>>
>> _______________________________________________
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>>
>>
>
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