# [Haskell-cafe] more generic class instances?

Nickolay Kudasov nickolay.kudasov at gmail.com
Sat Nov 2 12:27:44 UTC 2013

```Okay, I think I got what you are trying to accomplish.

With separate data types for each term type this could be done like that:

newtype Constant a = Constant a deriving (Eq, Show, Enum, Num)
data Linear    a = Linear    a (Constant a)data Quadratic a =
Quadratic a (Linear a) data Arbitrary a = Arbitrary (a -> a)

class PartialSum term where
partialSum :: (Integral a) => a -> term a -> a
instance PartialSum Constant where
partialSum n (Constant c) = n * c
instance PartialSum Linear where
partialSum n (Linear k c) = k * n * (n + 1) `div` 2 + partialSum n c
partialSum n (Quadratic k l) = k * n * (n + 1) * (2 * n + 1) `div` 6
+ partialSum n l
instance PartialSum Arbitrary where
partialSum n (Arbitrary f) = sum \$ map f [1..n]

Now you can calculate partialSum effectively like that:

partialSum 10 \$ Quadratic 1 \$ Linear 2 1    -- sum = 505,  a_n = n^2 +
2n + 1partialSum 10 \$ Linear 3 (-1)               -- sum = 155,  a_n =
3n - 1partialSum 10 \$ Arbitrary (2^)              -- sum = 2046, a_n =
2^n

Note that I didn’t use any of FunctionalDependencies or
You can easily
make types of a_n and n different using 2 type parameters, but I kept them
the same for simplicity.

The problem with this implementation is that you can’t compose different
terms. E.g. if you have term1 :: Linear Int and term2 :: Quadratic Int, you
can’t write term1 + term2. If you’d like to do that, you can make a single
data structure representing all kinds of terms:

data Term a
= Constant  a
| Linear    a a
| Arbitrary (a -> a)

Now you could implement a Num instance on that:

instance Num a => Num (Term a) where
fromInteger = Constant ∘ fromInteger

Constant c + Linear k c'       = Linear k (c + c')
Constant c + Quadratic a k  c' = Quadratic a k (c + c')
Linear k c + Quadratic a k' c' = Quadratic a (k + k') (c + c')
-- ...
x + y = y + x

Constant c * Linear      k c' = Linear (c * k) (c * c')
Constant c * Quadratic a b c' = Quadratic (c * a) (c * b) (c * c')
-- ...
x * y = y * x

negate (Constant c)      = Constant  (negate c)
negate (Linear k b)      = Linear    (negate k) (negate b)
negate (Quadratic a b c) = Quadratic (negate a) (negate b) (negate c)
-- ...

as well as partialSum:

partialSum :: (Integral a) => a -> Term a -> apartialSum n (Constant
c)      = n * cpartialSum n (Linear    k b)    = k * n * (n + 1) `div`
2 + partialSum n (Constant b)partialSum n (Quadratic a b c)  = a * n *
(n + 1) * (2 * n + 1) `div` 6 + partialSum n (Linear b c)partialSum n
(Arbitrary f)      = sum \$ map f [1..n]

Note that we don’t have to use typeclasses for that!

Finally, you could make some useful aliases:

n :: Integral a => Term an = Linear 1 0
n2 :: Integral a => Term an2 = Quadratic 1 0 0

And go on calculating what you want:

partialSum 10 \$ 3 * n2 - 5 * n + 10  -- sum = 980

Hope that helps,
Nick

2013/11/2 Christopher Howard <christopher.howard at frigidcode.com>

>  On 11/01/2013 11:14 PM, Nickolay Kudasov wrote:
>
>  Hi Christopher,
>
> What you want is to make b (and a) depend on f. This can be done in
> several ways.
>
> With functional dependencies:
>
> class (Integral a, Num b) => PartialSum a b f | f -> a b where
>   partialSum :: f -> a -> b
> instance (Integral a, Num b) => PartialSum a b (a -> b) where
>   partialSum f n = foldl (\u v -> u + f v) 0 [1..n]
>
> With type families:
>
> class PartialSum f where
>   type End f
>   type Res f
>   partialSum' :: f -> End f -> Res f
> instance (Integral a, Num b) => PartialSum (a -> b) where
>   type End (a -> b) = a
>   type Res (a -> b) = b
>   partialSum f n = foldl (\u v -> u + f v) 0 [1..n]
>
> I can’t see though what you’re trying to achieve. Could you provide some
> more use cases for that class?
>
>
> Thanks for the response. I'll have to read up more on functional
> dependencies and type families. Which do you think is more appropriate?
>
> This little class is mostly just a test case for me to use in exploring
> the specialization idea. Partial sums are something mentioned in my math
> class. Generically, you can calculate any partial sum by adding up the
> terms (a_1 + a_2 + a_3 + ... + a_n). However, when the terms are in certain
> forms, you can use shortcut formulas. E.g., if the term is just n, then you
> can just plug n into n*(n+1)/2.
>
> So, the idea was to have a partialSum function that can calculate the
> partial sum with any function passed to it (the long and slow way) but can
> use a shortcut method when the function is of a particular form. Say, a
> term of this type:
>
> data LinearTerm f = LinearTerm f -- constructor not exported
> linearTerm coefficient = LinearTerm (\x -> coefficient * x)
>
> If my toy case is silly, I'm sure there are plenty of better examples that
> could be given. For example, sorting functions that can "choose" better
> algorithms depending on the type. (Say, the generic function uses a
> comparison sort, but a type with a small number of possible values would be
> better suited for a pigeon hole algorithm.)
>
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...