[Haskell-cafe] Re: Polyvariadic functions operating with a monoid
Kevin Jardine
kevinjardine at gmail.com
Mon Oct 11 05:08:14 EDT 2010
It also appears that we need type families to reconstruct the original
Haskell list system using polyToMonoid.
instance (a ~ a') => Monoidable a [a'] where
toMonoid a = [a]
testList = putStrLn $ show $ polyToMonoid (mempty :: [a]) "a" "b" "c"
Given this instance of Monoidable, you can put any number of values
after
polyToMonoid (mempty :: [a]) as long as they are exactly the same
type.
In other words, this acts exactly like the usual Haskell list, going
back to my original point that polyToMonoid is a sort of generalised
list or "a function that takes a bunch of values that can be stuck
together in some way".
I am a bit surprised that the (a ~ a') is needed, but Haskell will
not compile this code with the more usual
instance Monoidable a [a] where
toMonoid a = [a]
Kevin
On Oct 11, 9:54 am, Kevin Jardine <kevinjard... at gmail.com> wrote:
> Hi Oleg,
>
> I've found that if I also add two other slightly scary sounding
> extensions: OverlappingInstances and IncoherentInstances, then I can
> eliminate the unwrap function *and* use your type families trick to
> avoid the outer type annotation.
>
> My latest code is here:
>
> {-# LANGUAGE TypeSynonymInstances, FlexibleInstances,
> MultiParamTypeClasses, TypeFamilies #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE OverlappingInstances, IncoherentInstances #-}
> module PolyTest where
>
> import Data.Monoid
>
> class Monoid m => Monoidable a m where
> toMonoid :: a -> m
>
> squish :: Monoidable a m => m -> a -> m
> squish m a = (m `mappend` (toMonoid a))
>
> class Monoid m => PolyVariadic m r where
> polyToMonoid :: m -> r
>
> instance (Monoid m', m' ~ m) => PolyVariadic m m' where
> polyToMonoid acc = acc
>
> instance (Monoidable a m, PolyVariadic m r) => PolyVariadic m (a->r)
> where
> polyToMonoid acc = \a -> polyToMonoid (squish acc a)
>
> Here are three examples. The resulting notation is short enough now
> that I am no longer tempted to use CPP.
>
> All you need to do is to specify the type for mempty. And even this
> can be skipped if you want to put in the specific mempty value
> (although I think that the type annotation is often better if slightly
> longer as it documents clearly what monoid the result is being mapped
> into).
>
> -- [String] example
> instance Show a => Monoidable a [String] where
> toMonoid a = [show a]
>
> testStringList = putStrLn $ show $ polyToMonoid (mempty :: [String])
> True () (Just (5::Int))
>
> -- String example
> instance Show a => Monoidable a String where
> toMonoid a = show a
>
> testString = putStrLn $ polyToMonoid (mempty :: String) True () (Just
> (5::Int))
>
> -- product example
>
> instance Monoid Double where
> mappend = (*)
> mempty = (1.0) :: Double
>
> instance Monoidable Int Double where
> toMonoid = fromIntegral
>
> instance Monoidable Double Double where
> toMonoid = id
>
> testProduct = putStrLn $ show $ polyToMonoid (mempty :: Double) (5 ::
> Int) (2.3 :: Double) (3 :: Int) (8 :: Int)
>
> main = do
> testStringList
> testString
> testProduct
>
> $ runhaskell PolyTest.hs
> ["True","()","Just 5"]
> True()Just 5
> 276.0
>
> Kevin
>
> On Oct 11, 2:39 am, o... at okmij.org wrote:
>
> > Sorry, I'm still catching up. I'm replying to first few messages.
>
> > > instance Show a => Monoidable a [String] where
> > > toMonoid a = [show a]
>
> > > main = putStrLn $ unwrap $ polyToMonoid [] True () (Just (5::Int))
> > > fails to compile.
>
> > The error message points to the first problem:
>
> > > No instances for (Monoidable Bool [a],
> > > Monoidable () [a],
> > > ...
>
> > The presence of the type variable 'a' means that the type checker
> > doesn't know list of what elements you want (in other words, the
> > context is not specific enough to instantiate the type variable
> > a). Thus, we need to explicitly tell that we wish a list of strings:
>
> > > test3 = putStrLn $ unwrap $polyToMonoid ([]::[String]) True () (Just (5::Int))
>
> > Now we get a different error, which points to the real problem this
> > time: the expression `unwrap ....' appears as an argument to
> > putStrLn. That means that we are required to produce a String as a
> > monoid. Yet we specified ([]::[String]) as mempty, which is unsuitable
> > as mempty for the String monoid. If we desire the [String] monoid as
> > the result, we need to change the context. For example,
>
> > > test3 = mapM_ putStrLn $ unwrap $
> > > polyToMonoid ([]::[String]) True () (Just (5::Int))
> > > Another example that also fails to compile (but I cannot see why):
> > > main = putStrLn $ show $ unwrap $ polyToMonoid (0::Int) (1::Int)
> > > (2::Int) (3::Int)
> > > No instance for (PolyVariadic Int (WMonoid m))
> > > arising from a use of `polyToMonoid'
>
> > The error message is informative, mentioning the type variable,
> > m. Whenever that happens, we know that we put a bounded polymorphic
> > expression in the context that is not specific enough. We need some
> > type annotations. In our case, the function 'show' can show values of
> > many types. The type checker does not know that we wish an Int monoid
> > specifically. So, we have to specialize the show function:
>
> > > test4 = putStrLn $ (show :: Int -> String) $
> > > unwrap $ polyToMonoid (0::Int) (1::Int) (2::Int) (3::Int)
>
> > At this point one may wonder if this is all worth it. There are too
> > many annotations. Fortunately, if you are not afraid of one more
> > extension, the annotations can be avoided. Your example would be
> > accepted as it was written, see test3 and test4 below.
>
> > > {-# LANGUAGE TypeSynonymInstances #-}
> > > {-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses, FlexibleInstances, TypeFamilies #-}
>
> > > module M where
>
> > > import Data.Monoid
>
> > > newtype WMonoid m = WMonoid{unwrap :: m}
>
> > > class Monoid m => Monoidable a m where
> > > toMonoid :: a -> m
>
> > > class Monoid m => PolyVariadic m p where
> > > polyToMonoid :: m -> p
>
> > > instance (Monoid m', m' ~ m) => PolyVariadic m (WMonoid m') where
> > > polyToMonoid acc = WMonoid acc
>
> > > instance (Monoidable a m, PolyVariadic m r) => PolyVariadic m (a->r) where
> > > polyToMonoid acc = \a -> polyToMonoid (acc `mappend` toMonoid a)
>
> > > instance Show a => Monoidable a String where
> > > toMonoid = show
>
> > > instance Show a => Monoidable a [String] where
> > > toMonoid a = [show a]
>
> > > test2 = putStrLn $ unwrap $ polyToMonoid "" True () (Just (5::Int))
>
> > > test3 = mapM_ putStrLn $ unwrap $ polyToMonoid [] True () (Just (5::Int))
>
> > > instance Monoid Int where
> > > mappend = (+)
> > > mempty = 0
>
> > > instance Monoidable Int Int where
> > > toMonoid = id
>
> > > test4 = putStrLn $ show $
> > > unwrap $ polyToMonoid (0::Int) (1::Int) (2::Int) (3::Int)
>
> > P.S. Indeed, "polyToMonoid' = unwrap . polyToMonoid" does not do what
> > one wishes to. One should regard `unwrap' as a sort of terminator of
> > the argument list.
>
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