[Haskell-cafe] Parallel term reduction---solution
John D. Ramsdell
ramsdell0 at gmail.com
Fri Mar 27 23:34:59 EDT 2009
On February 1, I sent a message to this list asking for advice on how
to write a parallel term reduction system. I now have a semi-explicit
parallelised version of a term reduction system that makes effective
use of multiple CPUs. The enclosed code describes the solution, even
though its performance on the example reduction rule does not show a
speed up.
In the actual reduction system. profiling shows that 99% of the
runtime and 98% of the allocations occur in the equivalent of the
branch function below, for a representative test case. It's no
surprise that just one parallel function, parMap, is all that's
needed.
John
> module Main (main) where
> import System.Time (ClockTime(..), getClockTime)
> import Data.Tree (Tree(..), flatten)
> import Data.Maybe (isNothing)
> import Control.Parallel
The reduction system takes a rule, a step count, and an initial value,
and computes a tree of reductions.
> reduce :: (Eq a, Monad m) => (a -> [a]) -> Int -> a -> m (Tree a)
> reduce rule limit root =
> step rule limit [top] [top]
> where
> top = Item { item = root, parent = Nothing }
The Item data structure stores the information about a reduction step
in a form that can be used to construct the final answer as a tree.
> data Eq a => Item a
> = Item { item :: a,
> parent :: Maybe (Item a) }
> instance Eq a => Eq (Item a) where
> x == y = item x == item y
The step function is where nearly all of the time is used. It is
called as:
step rule limit seen todo
where seen is the items already seen, and todo is the items on the
queue. The order of the items in the seen list is irrelevant, because
the tree is assembled as a post processing step.
> step :: (Eq a, Monad m) => (a -> [a]) -> Int ->
> [Item a] -> [Item a] -> m (Tree a)
> step _ _ seen [] = tree seen
> step rule limit seen todo =
> combine rule seen limit [] [] (parMap (branch rule seen) todo)
Each branch of the rule derivation tree can be evaluated in parallel.
Furthermore, most of the checking to see if an item has been seen
before can be done in parallel.
> branch :: Eq a => (a -> [a]) -> [Item a] -> Item a -> Reduct a
> branch rule seen parent =
> Reduct parent (seqList kids)
> where
> kids = [ kid | kid <- rule (item parent), not (dejaVu kid seen) ]
This data structure ensures as much computation as possible is done in
parallel.
> data Eq a => Reduct a = Reduct !(Item a) ![a]
Has x been seen before?
> dejaVu :: Eq a => a -> [Item a] -> Bool
> dejaVu x seen = any (\i-> x == item i) seen
Combine the results of one level of the rule derivation tree. The
combination function is not associative, so there are no opportunities
for parallelisation.
> combine :: (Eq a, Monad m) => (a -> [a]) -> [Item a] -> Int ->
> [Item a] -> [Item a] -> [Reduct a] -> m (Tree a)
> combine rule seen' limit seen todo [] =
> step rule limit (seen ++ seen') (reverse todo)
> combine _ _ limit _ _ _
> | limit <= 0 = fail "Step limit exceeded"
> combine rule oseen limit seen todo (Reduct p kids : reducts) =
> combine rule oseen (limit - 1) seen' todo' reducts
> where
> (seen', todo') = foldr f (seen, todo) kids
> f kid (seen, todo) =
> if dejaVu kid seen then
> (seen, todo)
> else
> (x:seen, x:todo)
> where
> x = Item { item = kid, parent = Just p }
> seqList :: [a] -> [a]
> seqList xs =
> loop xs
> where
> loop [] = xs
> loop (y : ys) = seq y (loop ys)
> parMap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
> parMap _ [] = []
> parMap f (x:xs) =
> par y (pseq ys (y:ys))
> where
> y = f x
> ys = parMap f xs
The next two functions assemble the answer into a tree.
Sequential search is just fine for tree building.
> tree :: (Eq a, Monad m) => [Item a] -> m (Tree a)
> tree items =
> case filter (isNothing . parent) items of
> [root] -> return (build items (item root))
> _ -> fail "bad tree"
> build :: Eq a => [Item a] -> a -> Tree a
> build items root =
> Node { rootLabel = root,
> subForest = map (build items . item) children }
> where
> children = filter child items
> child i = maybe False ((== root) . item) (parent i)
A silly rule
> rule :: Int -> [Int]
> rule n = filter (>= 0) [n - 1, n `quot` 2, n `quot` 3]
> secDiff :: ClockTime -> ClockTime -> Float
> secDiff (TOD secs1 psecs1) (TOD secs2 psecs2)
> = fromInteger (psecs2 - psecs1) / 1e12 + fromInteger (secs2 - secs1)
> main :: IO ()
> main =
> do
> t0 <- getClockTime
> t <- reduce rule 20000 5000
> let ns = length (flatten t)
> t1 <- getClockTime
> putStrLn $ "length: " ++ show ns
> putStrLn $ "time: " ++ show (secDiff t0 t1) ++ " seconds"
The makefile
------------
PROG = parreduce
GHCFLAGS = -Wall -package containers -package parallel -threaded \
-fno-warn-name-shadowing -O
%: %.lhs
ghc $(GHCFLAGS) -o $@ $<
all: $(PROG)
clean:
-rm *.o *.hi $(PROG)
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