[Haskell-cafe] How to give unique name/id to nodes outside any
monad ?
minh thu
noteed at gmail.com
Fri Jan 9 03:11:21 EST 2009
2009/1/9 Timothy Goddard <tim at goddard.net.nz>:
> On Thu, 08 Jan 2009 21:28:27 minh thu wrote:
>> Hi,
>>
>> I'd like to process some kind of graph data structure,
>> say something like
>>
>> data DS = A [DS] | B DS DS | C.
>
> Graphs in funtional languages aren't usually represented in this sort of
> manner. Trees are fine to represent like that as they're acyclic and have
> exactly one parent for each node but for graphs it's much more difficult. Say
> that you have a graph with directed connections like this:
>
> 0 -> 1
> 1 -> 2
> 2 -> 3
> 1 -> 3
> 3 -> 4
>
> Now you want to alter node 4. Node 3 has to be updated to point to the new
> version of 4, node 1 has to be changed to point to the new version of 3, node
> 2 has to be changed to point to the new version of node 3, then node 1 has to
> be changed again to point to the new version of 2, then finally 0 can be
> changed to point to the new version of 1 and returned.
>
> There is no simple way using this representation to handle that double-update
> to node 1, or to handle disconnected or cyclic graphs. Updates are extremely
> difficult since Haskell data structures are not mutable and have no concept
> of identity. The approach of treating nodes as structures with pointers to
> each other cannot be cleanly and efficiently implemented in an immutable
> fashion. It only really makes sense in a stateful, imperative context.
>
> An approach that suits functional languages better is to store a flat
> structure listing the edges leaving each node. This, I believe, is the
> approach taken by Haskell's main graph library, FGL
> (http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/fgl). You would
> now have something like:
>
> data MyNode nv = MyNode {nodeId::Int, nodeValue::nv}
>
> data MyEdge ev = MyEdge {edgeDestination::Int, edgeValue::ev}
>
> data MyGraph nv ev = MyGraph {
> maxNode :: Int,
> nodes :: (Map Int nv),
> edges :: (Map Int [MyEdge ev])}
>
> emptyGraph :: MyGraph nv ev
> emptyGraph = MyGraph 0 (Data.Map.empty) (Data.Map.empty)
>
> getNode :: MyGraph nv ev -> Int -> Maybe (MyNode nv)
> getNode g id = ((nodes g) `lookup` id) >>= (\v -> MyNode id v)
>
> getEdgesLeaving :: MyGraph nv ev -> Int -> [MyEdge ev]
> getEdgesLeaving g id = fromMaybe [] ((edges g) `lookup` id)
>
> addNode :: nv -> MyGraph nv ev -> (Int, MyGraph nv ev)
> addNode val g = (maxNode newGraph, newGraph)
> where
> newNodeId = (maxNode g) + 1
> newGraph = MyGraph newNodeId (insert newNodeId val (nodes g)) (edges g)
>
> ... and so on. (This is all totally untested - use at your own peril.)
>
> Each node in the graph has a unique identifying number, issued in sequence
> using maxNode as a counter. This makes identifying cycles easy. The nodes map
> contains the value for each node based on its id. The edges map contains a
> list of links from each node to others in the graph. Finding links entering a
> node is quite expensive - if you need to do this often then maintaining a
> second list of edges entering each node would speed it up.
>
> Each node and each edge can have a custom data structure attached. New nodes
> and edges can be added without having to modify references elsewhere, nodes
> have a distinct identity given by the associated Int and the graph is
> immutable - operations on it produce modified copies.
Indeed, the processing I'm refering to is to copy something like my
representation
into something like yours.
Thanks !
Thu
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