[Haskell-cafe] ANNOUNCE: pqueue-mtl, stateful-mtl
Sittampalam, Ganesh
ganesh.sittampalam at credit-suisse.com
Mon Feb 16 11:21:33 EST 2009
Oh, I see, every derived monad has to have an 's' in its type somewhere.
________________________________
From: Louis Wasserman [mailto:wasserman.louis at gmail.com]
Sent: 16 February 2009 16:17
To: Sittampalam, Ganesh
Cc: Dan Doel; Henning Thielemann; haskell-cafe at haskell.org
Subject: Re: [Haskell-cafe] ANNOUNCE: pqueue-mtl, stateful-mtl
But the m -> s dependency will have been removed by the time runST gets
a hold of it! It works, I just tested it.
*Control.Monad.Array.ArrayM> :t runST (runArrayT 5 Nothing getContents)
runST (runArrayT 5 Nothing getContents) :: [Maybe a]
*Control.Monad.Array.ArrayM> runST (runArrayT 5 Nothing getContents)
[Nothing,Nothing,Nothing,Nothing,Nothing]
There is, unfortunately, one last key point needed in this approach: the
transformer cannot implement MonadTrans, which requires that it work for
all monads. The hack I added is
class MonadSTTrans s t where
stLift :: MonadST s m => m a -> t m a
instance MonadTrans t => MonadSTTrans s t where
stLift = lift
which, as a side effect, makes explicit the distinction between normal
monad transformers and ST-wrapped monad transformers.
Louis Wasserman
wasserman.louis at gmail.com
On Mon, Feb 16, 2009 at 10:04 AM, Sittampalam, Ganesh
<ganesh.sittampalam at credit-suisse.com> wrote:
I don't think this can be right, because the m -> s dependency
will contradict the universal quantification of s required by runST. In
other words, unwrapping the transformers will leave you with an ST
computation for a specific s, which runST will reject.
________________________________
From: Louis Wasserman [mailto:wasserman.louis at gmail.com]
Sent: 16 February 2009 16:01
To: Sittampalam, Ganesh
Cc: Dan Doel; Henning Thielemann; haskell-cafe at haskell.org
Subject: Re: [Haskell-cafe] ANNOUNCE: pqueue-mtl, stateful-mtl
Overnight I had the following thought, which I think could work
rather well. The most basic implementation of the idea is as follows:
class MonadST s m | m -> s where
liftST :: ST s a -> m a
instance MonadST s (ST s) where ...
instance MonadST s m => MonadST ...
newtype FooT m e = FooT (StateT Foo m e)
instance (Monad m, MonadST s m) => Monad (FooT m) where ...
instance (Monad m, MonadST s m) => MonadBar (FooT m) where
<operations using an ST state>
instance (Monad m, MonadST s m) => MonadST s (FooT m) where ...
The point here is that a MonadST instance guarantees that the
bottom monad is an ST -- and therefore single-threaded of necessity --
and grants any ST-based monad transformers on top of it access to its
single state thread.
The more fully general approach to guaranteeing an underlying
monad is single-threaded would be to create a dummy state parameter
version of each single-threaded monad -- State, Writer, and Reader --
and add a typeclass called MonadThreaded or something.
The real question with this approach would be how to go about
unwrapping ST-based monad transformers in this fashion: I'm thinking
that you would essentially perform unwrapping of the outer monad using
an ST computation which gets lifted to the next-higher monad. So, say,
for example:
newtype MonadST s m => ArrayT e m a = ArrayT {execArrayT ::
StateT (STArray s Int e) m a}
runArrayT :: (Monad m, MonadST s m) => Int -> ArrayT e m a -> m
a
runArrayT n m = liftST (newArray_ (0, n-1)) >>= evalStateT
(execArrayT m)
Key points:
- A MonadST s m instance should always imply that the
bottom-level monad is of type ST s, preferably a bottom level provided
when defining a monad by stacking transformers. The fact that the
bottom monad is in ST should guarantee single-threaded, referentially
transparent behavior.
- A non-transformer implementation of an ST-bound monad
transformer would simply involve setting the bottom monad to ST, rather
than Identity as for most monad transformers.
- Unwrapping an ST-bound monad transformer involves no universal
quantification on the state type. After all transformers have been
unwrapped, it should be possible to invoke runST on the final ST s a.
- Both normal transformers and ST-bound transformers should
propagate MonadST.
I'm going to go try implementing this idea in stateful-mtl
now...
Louis Wasserman
wasserman.louis at gmail.com
On Mon, Feb 16, 2009 at 3:07 AM, Sittampalam, Ganesh
<ganesh.sittampalam at credit-suisse.com> wrote:
Well, I think a type system like Clean's that had
linear/uniqueness types could "fix" the issue by actually checking that
the state is single-threaded (and thus stop you from applying it to a
"forking" monad). But there's a fundamental operational problem that ST
makes destructive updates, so to support it as a monad transformer in
general you'd need a type system that actually introduced fork
operations (which "linear implicit parameters" used to do in GHC , but
they were removed because they were quite complicated semantically and
noone really used them).
________________________________
From: haskell-cafe-bounces at haskell.org
[mailto:haskell-cafe-bounces at haskell.org] On Behalf Of Louis Wasserman
Sent: 16 February 2009 03:31
To: Dan Doel
Cc: Henning Thielemann; haskell-cafe at haskell.org
Subject: Re: [Haskell-cafe] ANNOUNCE: pqueue-mtl,
stateful-mtl
Okay, I tested it out and the arrow transformer has the
same problem. I realized this after I sent the last message -- the
point is that at any particular point, intuitively there should be
exactly one copy of a State# s for each state thread, and it should
never get duplicated; allowing other monads or arrows to hold a State# s
in any form allows them to hold more than one, violating that goal.
I'm not entirely convinced yet that there isn't some
really gorgeous type system magic to fix this issue, like the
type-system magic that motivates the type of runST in the first place,
but that's not an argument that such magic exists...it's certainly an
interesting topic to mull.
Louis Wasserman
wasserman.louis at gmail.com
On Sun, Feb 15, 2009 at 9:20 PM, Dan Doel
<dan.doel at gmail.com> wrote:
On Sunday 15 February 2009 9:44:42 pm Louis
Wasserman wrote:
> Hello all,
>
> I just uploaded stateful-mtl and pqueue-mtl
1.0.1. The ST monad
> transformer and array transformer have been
removed -- I've convinced
> myself that a heap transformer backed by an ST
array cannot be
> referentially transparent -- and the heap
monad is now available only as a
> basic monad and not a transformer, though it
still provides priority queue
> functionality to any of the mtl wrappers
around it. stateful-mtl retains a
> MonadST typeclass which is implemented by ST
and monad transformers around
> it, allowing computations in the the ST-bound
heap monad to perform ST
> operations in its thread.
>
> Since this discussion had largely led to the
conclusion that ST can only be
> used as a bottom-level monad, it would be
pretty uncool if ST computations
> couldn't be performed in a monad using ST
internally because the ST thread
> was hidden and there was no way to place ST
computations 'under' the outer
> monad. Anyway, it's essentially just like the
MonadIO typeclass, except
> with a functional dependency on the state
type.
>
> There was a question I asked that never got
answered, and I'm still
> curious: would an ST *arrow* transformer be
valid? Arrows impose
> sequencing on their operations that monads
don't... I'm going to test out
> some ideas, I think.
Your proposed type:
State (Kleisli []) x y = (s, x) -> [(s, y)]
is (roughly) isomorphic to:
x -> StateT s [] y = x -> s -> [(s, y)]
The problem with an ST transformer is that the
state parameter needs to be
used linearly, because that's the only condition
under which the optimization
of mutable update is safe. ST ensures this by
construction, as opposed to
other languages (Clean) that have type systems
that can express this kind of
constraint directly. However, with STT, whether
the state parameter is used
linearly is a function of the wrapped monad.
You'd have to give a more fleshed
out version of your proposed state arrow
transformer, but off the top of my
head, I'm not sure it'd be any better.
-- Dan
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