# [Haskell-cafe] Functions that return functions

michael rice nowgate at yahoo.com
Sun Apr 12 13:50:49 EDT 2009

```Cool. I expected as much.

My ISP seems to be swamped (Easter?) so maybe more later after I look at your remarks.

Thanks.

Michael

--- On Sun, 4/12/09, Daniel Fischer <daniel.is.fischer at web.de> wrote:

From: Daniel Fischer <daniel.is.fischer at web.de>
Subject: Re: [Haskell-cafe] Functions that return functions
Cc: "michael rice" <nowgate at yahoo.com>
Date: Sunday, April 12, 2009, 12:15 PM

Am Sonntag 12 April 2009 17:38:53 schrieb michael rice:
> The following are exercises 5.10, and 5.11 from the Scheme text "Concrete
> Abstractions" by Max Hailperin, et al. The text at that point is about
> writing verifiers to check ID numbers such as ISBNs, credit card numbers,
> UPCs, etc.
>
> ======
>
> Exercise 5.10
> Write a predicate that takes a number and determines whether the sum of its
> digits is divisible by 17.
>
> Exercise 5.11
> Write a procedure make-verifier, which takes f and m as its two arguments
> and returns a procedure capable of checking a number. The argument f is
> itself a procedure of course. Here is a particularly simple example of a
> verifier being made and used.
>
> (define check-isbn (make-verifier * 11))
>
> (check-isbn 0262010771)
> #t
>
> The value #t is the "true" value; it indicates that the number is a valid
> ISBN.
>
> As we just saw, for ISBN numbers the divisor is 11 and the function is
> simply f(i,d(i)) = i * d(i). Other kinds of numbers use slightly more
> complicated functions, but you will still be able to use make-verifier to
> make a verifier much more easily than if you had to start from scratch.
>
> =======
>
> Here's the Scheme check-verifier function I wrote, followed by my humble
> attempt at a Haskell function that does the same thing. Below that are some
> verifier functions created with the Scheme make-verifier. Admittedly,
> functions that return functions are Lispy, but perhaps there a Haskelly way
> to accomplish the same thing?

Functions returning functions are quite natural in Haskell.
Since usually functions are written in curried form, a function returng a function
corresponds to a function of multiple arguments applied to only some of them.

>
> Michael
>
> ===============
>
>
> (define (make-verifier f m) ;f is f(i,d) & m is divisor
>   (lambda (n)
>     (let* ((d (digits n))
>        (i (index (length d))))   ;(index 3) => (1 2 3)
>       (divides? m (reduce + 0 (map f i d)))))) #f
>
> makeVerifier :: (Int -> Int ->  Int) -> Int -> (Int -> Bool)
>
> makeVerifier f m = \n -> let d = digits n
>
>                              i = [1..(length d)]
>
>                          in \n -> divides m (foldl (+) 0 (map2 f i d))
>
>

makeVerifier f m n = divides m . foldl (+) 0 \$ zipWith f [1 .. ] (digits n)

just call makeVerifier f m to get your verification function :)

If you don't want to name the last argument:

makeVerifier f m = divides m . foldl (+) 0 . zipWith f [1 .. ] . digits

more point-freeing would be obfuscation.
Instead of foldl (+) 0, you could also just write sum.

>
> -- Note: Reduce is just foldl f 0 lst, but map2 is
> map2 :: (Int -> Int -> Int) -> [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int]
> map2 f m n = [ f i d | (i,d) <- zip m n]

map2 is zipWith, already in the Prelude.

>
> -- And here's my digits function
> digits :: Int -> [Int]
> digits 0 = []
> digits n = rem n 10 : digits (quot n 10)

Unless you are desperate for speed and sure you deal only with positive numbers (or know
that you really want quot and rem), better use div and mod. Those give the commonly
expected (unless your expectation has been ruined by the behaviour of % in C, Java...)
results.

>
> -- And divides function
> divides :: Int -> Int -> Bool
> divides divisor n = 0 == rem n divisor
>
> =====
>
> (define check-isbn ;book number
>   (make-verifier
>    *
>    11))
>
> (define check-upc ;universal product code
>   (make-verifier
>    (lambda (i d) (if (odd? i) d (* 3 d)))
>    10))
>
> (define check-cc ;credit card
>   (make-verifier
>    (lambda (i d) (if (odd? i) d (if (< d 5) (* 2 d) (+ (* 2 d) 1))))
>    10))
>
> (define check-usps ;postal money order
>   (make-verifier
>    (lambda (i d) (if (= i 1) (- d) d))
>    9))

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