# [Haskell-cafe] "sum" in hmatrix and blas?

Alberto Ruiz aruiz at um.es
Sun Jun 8 15:27:11 EDT 2008

```Xiao-Yong Jin wrote:
> Tomas Andersson <toman144 at student.liu.se> writes:
>
>>  You can never go wrong with a good old fashioned hand written tail recursion
>> when you're in doubt, they are pretty much the closest thing to for-loops
>> there is in haskell and should be easy to grok for Imperative programmers and
>> usually produce really fast code.
>>
>> sum vect = let d = dim vect
>>            in sum' (d - 1) 0
>>   where sum' 0 s = s + (vect @> 0)
>>         sum' index s = sum' (index - 1) (s + (vect @> index))
>>
>
> Do I need the strict version of sum'?  Put something like
>
> sum' a b | a `seq` b `seq` False = undefined
>
> Or ghc will optimize it automatically?  I always don't know
> when such optimization is useful.
>
>>
>>  I don't know the hmatrix api very well, but if there is a function for
>> computing the inner product between two vectors you could always do something
>> like the following meta code:
>>
>> sum v = innerProduct v <1,1,1,1,1,1>
>
> I just doubt the efficiency here.  If v is a very large
> vector, I guess the allocation time of that intermediate
> vector [1,1..] is not small.  But it is just my guess.

My experience is that Haskell allocation time is very fast and usually
negligible in most non trivial matrix computations.

sum v = constant 1 (dim v) <.> v

is that a constant vector is efficiently created internally (not from an
intermediate Haskell list), and the inner product will be computed by
the possibly optimized blas version available in your machine.

You can also write simple definitions like the next one for the average
of the rows of a matrix as a simple vector-matrix product:

mean m = w <> m
where w = constant k r
r = rows m
k = 1 / fromIntegral r

I prefer high level "index free" matrix operations to C-like code.
Definitions are clearer, have less bugs, and are also more efficient if
you use optimized numerical libs.

In any case, many algorithms can be solved by the recursive approach
described by Tomas.

Alberto

>
> Xiao-Yong
```