[Haskell-cafe] An interesting monad: "Prompt"
Thomas Hartman
tphyahoo at gmail.com
Tue Dec 4 12:17:52 EST 2007
Thank you!
I really appreciate your explanation, and I hope this will enable me
to do some interesting and usefull stuff, in addition to firming up my
understanding of some of the more advanced haskell type system
features.
MACID is a sort of RDBMS replacement used as a backend by the HAppS
web framework.
To quote from http://www.haskell.org/communities/05-2007/html/report.html
"Apps as Simple State Transformers
HAppS keeps your application development very simple. You represent
state with the Haskell data structure you find most natural for that
purpose. Your app then is just a set of state transformer functions
(in the MACID Monad) that take an event and state as input and that
evaluate to a new state, a response, and a (possibly null) set of
sideeffects."
It sounds great, but in practice it is not that simple to use, largely
because HAppS is in such a state of flux right now that even
installing the current codebase is pretty daunting.
However, I think a simple example of using MACID to "guess a number"
would be a great piece of documentation, and it might even be a step
towards using HAppS/MACID to easily do things other than serve web
apps. (HAppS is meant to be a general application serving framework,
but all the docu is oriented towards serving web pages, and even that
documentation is pretty shaky.)
What I ultimately would like to do is adapt this guess a number stuff
to HAppS/MACID so it is an example server for a multi-user console app
with this cool undo/replay/logging functionality which can then be
plugged into more sophisticated uses. Porting the console app to a web
app would be a further step. Hopefully, since all the state stuff has
been so meticulously compartmentalized it's easy and obvious how to do
this, just a matter of changing the IO to be outputting html rather
than console text. That is the HAppS tutorial I would like to see.
thomas.
2007/12/4, Ryan Ingram <ryani.spam at gmail.com>:
> Ask and ye shall receive. A simple guess-a-number game in MonadPrompt
> follows.
>
> But before I get to that, I have some comments:
>
>
> Serializing the state at arbitrary places is hard; the Prompt contains a
> continuation function so unless you have a way to serialize closures it
> seems like you lose. But if you have "safe points" during the execution at
> which you know all relevant state is inside your "game state", you can save
> there by serializing the state and providing a way to restart the
> computation at those safe points.
>
> I haven't looked at MACID at all; what's that?
>
> > {-# LANGUAGE GADTs, RankNTypes #-}
> > module Main where
> > import Prompt
> > import Control.Monad.State
> > import System.Random (randomRIO)
> > import System.IO
> > import Control.Exception (assert)
>
> Minimalist "functional references" implementation.
> In particular, for this example, we skip the really interesting thing:
> composability.
>
> See http://luqui.org/blog/archives/2007/08/05/ for a real
> implementation.
>
> > data FRef s a = FRef
> > { frGet :: s -> a
> > , frSet :: a -> s -> s
> > }
>
> > fetch :: MonadState s m => FRef s a -> m a
> > fetch ref = get >>= return . frGet ref
>
> > infix 1 =:
> > infix 1 =<<:
> > (=:) :: MonadState s m => FRef s a -> a -> m ()
> > ref =: val = modify $ frSet ref val
> > (=<<:) :: MonadState s m => FRef s a -> m a -> m ()
> > ref =<<: act = act >>= modify . frSet ref
> > update :: MonadState s m => FRef s a -> (a -> a) -> m ()
> > update ref f = fetch ref >>= \a -> ref =: f a
>
> Interactions that a user can have with the game:
>
> > data GuessP a where
> > GetNumber :: GuessP Int
> > Guess :: GuessP Int
> > Print :: String -> GuessP ()
>
> Game state.
>
> We could do this with a lot less state, but I'm trying to show what's
> possible here. In fact, for this example it's probably easier to just
> thread the state through the program directly, but bigger games want real
> state, so I'm showing how to do that.
>
> > data GuessS = GuessS
> > { gsNumGuesses_ :: Int
> > , gsTargetNumber_ :: Int
> > }
>
> > -- a real implementation wouldn't do it this way :)
> > initialGameState :: GuessS
> > initialGameState = GuessS undefined undefined
>
> > gsNumGuesses, gsTargetNumber :: FRef GuessS Int
> > gsNumGuesses = FRef gsNumGuesses_ $ \a s -> s { gsNumGuesses_ = a }
> > gsTargetNumber = FRef gsTargetNumber_ $ \a s -> s { gsTargetNumber_ = a }
>
> Game monad with some useful helper functions
>
> > type Game = StateT GuessS (Prompt GuessP)
>
> > gPrint :: String -> Game ()
> > gPrint = prompt . Print
>
> > gPrintLn :: String -> Game ()
> > gPrintLn s = gPrint (s ++ "\n")
>
> Implementation of the game:
>
> > gameLoop :: Game Int
> > gameLoop = do
> > update gsNumGuesses (+1)
> > guessNum <- fetch gsNumGuesses
> > gPrint ("Guess #" ++ show guessNum ++ ":")
> > guess <- prompt Guess
> > answer <- fetch gsTargetNumber
> >
> > if guess == answer
> > then do
> > gPrintLn "Right!"
> > return guessNum
> > else do
> > gPrintLn $ concat
> > [ "You guessed too "
> > , if guess < answer then "low" else "high"
> > , "! Try again."
> > ]
> > gameLoop
>
> > game :: Game ()
> > game = do
> > gsNumGuesses =: 0
> > gsTargetNumber =<<: prompt GetNumber
> > gPrintLn "I'm thinking of a number. Try to guess it!"
> > numGuesses <- gameLoop
> > gPrintLn ("It took you " ++ show numGuesses ++ " guesses!")
>
> Simple unwrapper for StateT that launches the game.
>
> > runGame :: Monad m => (forall a. GuessP a -> m a) -> m ()
> > runGame f = runPromptM f (evalStateT game initialGameState)
>
> Here is the magic function for interacting with the player in IO. Exercise
> for the reader: make this more robust.
>
> > gameIOPrompt :: GuessP a -> IO a
> > gameIOPrompt GetNumber = randomRIO (1, 100)
> > gameIOPrompt (Print s) = putStr s
> > gameIOPrompt Guess = fmap read getLine
>
> If you wanted to add undo, all you have to do is save off the current Prompt
> in the middle of runPromptM; you can return to the old state at any time.
>
> > gameIO :: IO ()
> > gameIO = do
> > hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering
> > runGame gameIOPrompt
>
> Here's a scripted version.
>
> > type GameScript = State [Int]
> >
> > scriptPrompt :: Int -> GuessP a -> GameScript a
> > scriptPrompt n GetNumber = return n
> > scriptPrompt _ (Print _) = return ()
> > scriptPrompt _ Guess = do
> > (x:xs) <- get -- fails if script runs out of answers
> > put xs
> > return x
> >
> > scriptTarget :: Int
> > scriptTarget = 23
> > scriptGuesses :: [Int]
> > scriptGuesses = [50, 25, 12, 19, 22, 24, 23]
>
> gameScript is True if the game ran to completion successfully, and False or
> bottom otherwise.
> Try adding or removing numbers from scriptGuesses above and re-running the
> program.
>
> > gameScript :: Bool
> > gameScript = null $ execState (runGame (scriptPrompt scriptTarget))
> scriptGuesses
>
> > main = do
> > assert gameScript $ return ()
> > gameIO
>
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