[Haskell-cafe] closed classes [was: Re: exceptions vs. Either]
simonpj at microsoft.com
Mon Aug 9 11:00:44 EDT 2004
Closed classes are certainly interesting, but a better way to go in this
case is to allow the programmer to declear new kinds, as well as new
types. This is what Tim Sheard's language Omega lets you do, and I'm
considering adding it to GHC.
kind HNat = HZero | HSucc HNat
class HNatC (a::HNat)
instance HNatC HZero
instance HNatC n => HNatC (HSucc n)
Here the keyword 'kind' is like 'data', except that it introduces a new
*kind* HNat with new *type* constructors HZero and HSucc, rather than a
new *type* constructor with new *data* constructors.
There is no way to construct a value of type HZero, or (HSucc HZero);
these are simply phantom types. Today we are forced to say
data HSucc a
which loses the connection between the two. A merit of declaring a kind
is that the kind is closed -- the only types of kind HNat are HZero,
HSucc HZero, and so on. So the class doesn't need to be closed; no one
can add new instances to HNatC because they don't have any more types of
At the moment I'm only thinking of parameter-less kind declarations but
one could easily imagine kind parameters, and soon we'll have kind
polymorphism.... but one step at a time.
| -----Original Message-----
| From: haskell-cafe-bounces at haskell.org
[mailto:haskell-cafe-bounces at haskell.org] On Behalf Of
| Duncan Coutts
| Sent: 06 August 2004 15:11
| To: MR K P SCHUPKE
| Cc: Haskell Cafe
| Subject: [Haskell-cafe] closed classes [was: Re: exceptions vs.
| On Fri, 2004-08-06 at 14:05, MR K P SCHUPKE wrote:
| > >You should include the definitions of the classes before saying
| > HOrderedList l' just has to prove by induction that for any element
| > in the list, the next element is greater, so the class is simply:
| > class HOrderedList l
| > instance HNil
| > instance HCons a HNil
| > instance (HOrderedList (HCons b l),HLe a b) => HCons a (HCons b l)
| Somewhat off-topic,
| It's when we write classes like these that closed classes would be
| really useful.
| You really don't want people to add extra instances to this class,
| really mess up your proofs!
| I come across this occasionally, like when modelling external type
| systems. For example the Win32 registry or GConf have a simple type
| system, you can store a fixed number of different primitive types and
| the case of GConf, pairs and lists of these primitive types. This can
| modelled with a couple type classes and a bunch of instances. However
| this type system is not extensible so it'd be nice if code outside the
| defining module could not interfere with it.
| The class being closed might also allow fewer dictionaries and so
| run time performance.
| It would also have an effect on overlapping instances. In my GConf
| example you can in particular store Strings and lists of any primitive
| type. But now these two overlap because a String is a list. However
| these don't really overlap because Char is not one of the primitive
| types so we could never get instances of String in two different ways.
| But because the class is open the compiler can't see that, someone
| always add an instance for Char in another module. If the class were
| closed they couldn't and the compiler could look at all the instances
| deciding if any of them overlap.
| So here's my wishlist item:
| closed class GConfValue v where
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