MonadCont, MonadFix

Magnus Carlsson
Sat, 9 Mar 2002 11:38:00 -0800

Ashley Yakeley writes:
 > Are there any useful monads that are instances of both MonadCont and=
 > MonadFix? I can't make the two meet. Perhaps this is because=20
 > continuations have no fixed point, or something. Very annoying.

If you have a recursive monad with first-class references (such as IO
or ST s), you can define a continuation monad on top of it with an
instance of MonadFix I enclose below.  The instance seems to make
sense operationally, but as Levent Erk=F6k has pointed out, it doesn't
satisfy the left-shrinking axiom for recursive monads:

    fixM (\x -> a >>=3D f x)    =3D=3D    a >>=3D \y -> fixM (\x -> f x=

This axiom comes from Levent's and John Launchbury's ICFP'00
paper, see

Moreover, I suspect that the instance breaks the axiom for callcc,
which shows how any evaluation context E can be pushed inside a

   E[callcc e] =3D callcc (\k' -> E[e (\z -> k' (E[z]))]

This is for callcc without monadic types, see Sabry's and Friedman's
paper on "Recursion is a Computational Effect", at



class Monad m =3D> FixMonad m where
  fixM :: (a -> m a) -> m a

class Monad m =3D> Ref m r | m -> r where
  newRef   :: a -> m (r a)
  readRef  :: r a -> m a
  writeRef :: r a -> a -> m ()

newtype C m a =3D C ((a -> m ()) -> m ())
deC (C m) =3D m

instance (FixMonad m, Ref m r) =3D> FixMonad (C m) where
  fixM m =3D C $ \k -> do
              x <- newRef Nothing
              a <- fixM $ \a -> do
                     deC (m a) $ \a -> do
                           ma <- readRef x
                           case ma of=20
                             Nothing -> do writeRef x (Just a)
                             Just _  -> k a
                     ma <- readRef x
                     case ma of
                        Just a -> return a
                        Nothing -> error "fixM"
              k a