Closure elimination transformation (continuation style passing
code)
Max Bolingbroke
batterseapower at hotmail.com
Wed May 20 05:35:22 EDT 2009
2009/5/20 Tyson Whitehead <twhitehead at gmail.com>:
> 1- avoid forming the (iter xs) and (count i+1) closures by passing the
> function and the arguments instead of the function bound to the argument
>
> iter [] next i done = done
> iter (x:xs) next i done = next i x iter xs
You have already specialised at this point, because this transformed
version of iter only works on functions with closures of particular
shape. GRIN based compilers can do this transformation (see Boquist's
generalized unboxing), because they can use flow analysis to work out
when all the closures are of a particular form.
> count i x step xs = step xs count (i+1) (i+1)
>
> test xs = iter xs count 0 0
>
> 2- specialize iter for next = count
>
> iter [] next i done = done
> iter (x:xs) next i done = next i x iter xs
> iter' [] i done = done
> iter' (x:xs) i done = count i x iter xs
>
> count i x step xs = step xs count (i+1) (i+1)
>
> test xs = iter' xs 0 0
GHC basically does not specialise recursive functions for particular
values of the arguments (the exception is for dictionaries). IMHO,
this is a big blind spot! If it did, then it's quite likely that
'iter' would be a candidate for such a transformation, because it's
quite likely that inlining the definition of 'next' would lead to
improvement (since 'next' is applied to quite a few arguments, one of
them being an argument of function type).
> 3- specialize count for step = iter (and use the specialized iter')
>
> iter [] next i done = done
> iter (x:xs) next i done = next i x iter xs
> iter' [] i done = done
> iter' (x:xs) i done = count' i x xs
>
> count i x step xs = step xs count (i+1) (i+1)
> count' i x xs = iter' xs (i+1) (i+1)
>
> test xs = iter' xs 0 0
>
> (iter and count are no longer used and can be dropped at this point)
Given the output of stage 2, I would expect that we would at least be
able to inline count into iter. However, there is no mechanism to tie
back - again, this is because GHC doesn't really specialise on
particular arguments at the moment.
> 4- inline count'
>
> iter' [] i done = done
> iter' (x:xs) i done = iter' xs (i+1) (i+1)
>
> count' i x xs = iter' xs (i+1) (i+1)
>
> test xs = iter' xs 0 0
>
> (count is no longer used and can be dropped at this point)
>
> 5- eliminate the done argument as it is always the same as the i argument
>
> iter'' [] i = i
> iter'' (x:xs) i = iter'' xs (i+1)
>
> test xs = iter'' xs 0
This is a classical loop optimisation, and GHC doesn't implement any
of those. As I understand it, this is actively hurting the DPH guys -
they end up with a lot of redundant counters in the output code :-(
> As the first one does not seem to be being performed, I did it manually to see
> if that would be enough that GHC would pickup on the rest. It seems that this
> isn't the case. The second two are not being done as well.
GHC's optimizer needs serious work. Personally, I'm rooting for the
LHC/JHC guys, because I'm increasingly coming to the conclusion that
you need whole-program compilation with flow analysis and bucketloads
of specialisation on the back of that to make serious progress at
optimizing Haskell.
All the best,
Max
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